Before, humans stood as nexus between Physical World and Cyberspace and the Physical World is only “modeled” inside Cyberspace as humans defined it.

Cyber-Physical Systems is not new but it is now becoming more expansive in its manifestations. It started when software started physically affecting matter and robot and actuators and motors and etc.


But in the same way that windmills and its mechanisms did not trigger the Industrial Revolution until the prevalence of an independent invention of steam engines, cyberspace did not have huge potential to be prevalent until inventions around more distributed and autonomous actuations of the physical world through complex software systems powered the sensing and communications and analysis and actuation.